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Averroes - Wikipedia
Butterworth Translation really liked it 4. Butterworth really liked it 4. Butterworth it was amazing 5. Therefore, Averroes argues that a designer was behind the creation and that is God. Averroes upholds the doctrine of divine unity tawhid and argues that God has seven divine attributes : knowledge, life, power, will, hearing, vision and speech. He devotes the most attention to the attribute of knowledge and argues that divine knowledge differs from human knowledge because God knows the universe because God is its cause while humans only know the universe through its effects.
Averroes argues that the attribute of life can be inferred because it is the precondition of knowledge and also because God willed objects into being. Averroes also argues that knowledge and power inevitably give rise to speech. Regarding vision and speech, he says that because God created the world, he necessarily knows every part of it in the same way an artist understands his or her work intimately. Because two elements of the world are the visual and the auditory, God must necessarily possess the vision and speech.
In the centuries preceding Averroes, there had been a debate between Muslim thinkers questioning whether the world was created at a specific moment in time or whether it has always existed. Averroes responded to Al-Ghazali in his Incoherence of the Incoherence. First, he argued that the differences between the two positions were not vast enough to warrant the charge of unbelief. Averroes states his political philosophy in his commentary of Plato's Republic.
He combines his ideas with Plato's and with Islamic tradition; he considers the ideal state to be one based on the Islamic law shariah. According to Averroes, there are two methods of teaching virtue to citizens; persuasion and coercion. Like Plato, Averroes calls for women to share with men in the administration of the state, including participating as soldiers, philosophers and rulers. Averroes also accepted Plato's ideas of the deterioration of the ideal state. He cites examples from Islamic history when the Rashidun caliphate —which in Sunni tradition represented the ideal state led by "rightly guided caliphs"—became a dynastic state under Muawiyah , founder of the Umayyad dynasty.
He also says the Almoravid and the Almohad empires started as ideal, shariah-based states but then deteriorated into timocracy , oligarchy , democracy and tyranny.
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In his tenure as judge and jurist, Averroes for the most part ruled and gave fatwas according to the Maliki school of Islamic law which was dominant in Al-Andalus and the Western Islamic world during his time. As did Avempace and Ibn Tufail , Averroes criticizes the Ptolemaic system using philosophical arguments and rejects the use of eccentrics and epicycles to explain the apparent motions of the moon, the sun and the planets. He argued that those objects move uniformly in a strictly circular motion around the earth, following Aristotelian principles.
He used this observation to support Aristotle's argument for the spherical Earth. Averroes was aware that Arabic and Andalusian astronomers of his time focused on "mathematical" astronomy, which enabled accurate predictions through calculations but did not provide a detailed physical explanation of how the universe worked. His long commentary of Aristotle's Metaphysics describes the principles of his attempted reform, but later in his life he declared that his attempts had failed.
In physics, Averroes did not adopt the inductive method that was being developed by Al-Biruni in the Islamic world and is closer to today's physics. Averroes expounds his thoughts on psychology in his three commentaries on Aristotle's On the Soul. In his last commentary—called the Long Commentary —he proposes another theory, which becomes known as the theory of "the unity of the intellect ".
In it, Averroes argues that there is only one material intellect, which is the same for all humans and is unmixed with human body. While his works in medicine indicate an in-depth theoretical knowledge in medicine of his time, he likely had limited expertise as a practitioner, and declared in one of his works that he had not "practiced much apart from myself, my relatives or my friends.
Another of his departure from Galen and the medical theories of the time is his description of stroke as produced by the brain and caused by an obstruction of the arteries from the heart to the brain. Maimonides d. In Moses ibn Tibbon published the translation of almost all of Averroes' commentaries and some of his works on medicine.
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Averroes' main influence on the Christian West was through his extensive commentaries on Aristotle. Michael Scot — c.
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Authorities of the Roman Catholic Church reacted against the spread of Averroism. In , at the request of Pope John XXI , Tempier issued another condemnation, this time targeting theses drawn from many sources, mainly the teachings of Aristotle and Averroes. Averroes received a mixed reception from other Catholic thinkers; Thomas Aquinas, a leading Catholic thinker of the thirteenth century, relied extensively on Averroes' interpretation of Aristotle but disagreed with him on many points.
The Catholic Church's condemnations of and , and the detailed critique by Aquinas weakened the spread of Averroism in Latin Christendom,  though it maintained a following until the sixteenth century, when European thought began to diverge from Aristotelianism. Averroes had no major influence on Islamic philosophic thought until modern times.
References to Averroes appear in the popular culture of both the Western and Muslim world. In the painting, Averroes wears a green robe and a turban, and peers out from behind Pythagoras , who is shown writing a book. A short story by Jorge Luis Borges , " Averroes's Search " Spanish : La Busca de Averroes , features his attempts to understand Aristotle's Poetics within a culture that lacks a tradition of live theatrical performance.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Commentator disambiguation. Averroes Ibn Rushd. Marrakesh , Maghreb , Almohad Caliphate Morocco. See also Averroism. See also: Latinization of names. See also: List of works by Averroes. Plato Kant Nietzsche. Buddha Confucius Averroes. Main article: Averroism. CRC Press. Adamson, Peter Oxford University Press. Agutter, Paul S. Thinking about Life: The history and philosophy of biology and other sciences.
Ahmad, Jamil Lahore : Al-Mawrid. Retrieved 14 October Ariew, Roger Descartes Among the Scholastics. Arnaldez, Roger Lewis; V. Menage; Ch. Pellat; J. Configure custom resolver. Charles E. Butterworth ed. The Works of Aristotle.