Then there are some surprising partnerships.
That means Somalia and super-rich Qatar join ranks, though it is hardly a united front. The G77 continues to put the onus on wealthy countries doing more to cut greenhouse gas emissions. South Africa have the chair this year and led a revolt at a preparatory meet in October with claims a draft text was biased towards rich countries. Expect fireworks. Though they have mostly contributed cash for poor nations to adapt to a warming planet.
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A mechanism to make big polluters compensate loss and damage from climate change is another sticking point. Members Kirabati and Tuvalu are the first in line to be submerged. Spanning three continents and three time zones, as well as the firewall between developed and emerging economies, the tiny group punches above its weight.
Croatia was the last to join in The No 1 provider of climate finance wants a binding agreement, a mechanism to review country pledges every five years and a long-term carbon-cutting goal. Regional conflicts are rooted in backgrounds and causes peculiar to each region. Conflicts escalate often because interests and intentions of large countries and the power relationship between the East and West are entangled in a complicated manner. Some regional conflicts were sparked by the advance of the Soviet Union into the Third World in the late s.
Thus, as East-West ideological confrontation sub-sides, ideology inspired regional conflicts are expected to decrease. It is expected that the improvement of U. Cases in point are the agreement made on the withdrawal of Cuban troops from Angola, the independence of Namibia, and peace in Nicaragua.
The role of the United Nations in the settlement of regional conflicts has also been reinforced partly due to cooperative relations developing between the U. A typical example is the U. Security Council's adoption of sanctions against Iraq for invading Kuwait, which vas made on the basis of Chapter 7 of the United Nations Charter for the first time in 22 years. Also worthy of attention, is the role the United Nations played regarding independence in Namibia and the achievement of peace in Nicaragua.
Despite the favorable changes, it is undeniable that any regional conflict is deeply rooted in historical, ethnic, religious, and or social factors peculiar to the region. A complete solution, therefore, cannot be expected unless these factors are effectively dealt with. And the danger of new regional conflicts arising due to such factors shows no sign of lessening.
The past year saw various regional conflicts erupt, including the escalation of the Kashmir issue and Iraq's invasion of Kuwait. Japan has been making active contributions regarding regional problems in the world, as part of "cooperation for peace" initiatives.
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Japanese contributions include support for the U. Secretary-General in his peace-making efforts in the Iran-Iraq conflict, and the sponsoring of "Tokyo Conference" on the Cambodian problem, as well as cooperation for the U. In particular, Japan's PKO cooperation extended beyond fund contribution to the provision of personnel. Following the dispatching of political officers to the U. Afghanistan, Pakistan Arbitration Mission, and to the U. Iran-Iraq Military Surveillance Group, Japan sent a team of 27 election surveillance personnel and 4 supporting staffers to the U.
Namibia Independence Support Group to oversee the election of the constituent assembly in Namibia November , and 6 election surveillance personnel and 4 supporting staffers to the U. Nicaragua Election Surveillance Group responsible for overseeing a general election in Nicaragua February Tension continues on the Korean Peninsula due to confrontation of large-scale military forces of North and South along the demilitarized zone. North Korea is party to a treaty on friendship, cooperation, and mutual assistance with the Soviet Union and China, and has modernized its armed forces under the Soviet's military assistance since when President Kim II Sung visited the Soviet Union for the first time in 23 years.
It remains to be seen how the country develops its relations with the Soviet Union and China in the future.
United Nations Regional Groups
On the other. In , however, the annual U. Also, the United States continued readjustment of its military force in South Korea partly due to its financial problems at home. At the end of January , the U. Government announced some reduction of its military force in South Korea and stated further readjustment would be made in its report to the Congress in April. Dialogue between North and South Korea has been held intermittently.
Since , the dialogues have been carried out through four channels: Red Cross meetings, North-South sports meetings, a preliminary meeting for a North-South National Assembly conference, and a preliminary meeting for a high-level prime minister North-South conference.
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Although some progress was made at the Red Cross meeting on reciprocal visits by separated family members and artist groups, and at the North-South sports meetings on participation of a North-South unified team in the Asian Games in Beijing, they failed to produce concrete results and were suspended by North Korea in February in protest against the exercise of "Team Spirit In September , President Roh Tae Woo announced a proposal for establishing a National Community as an intermediate stage to restore ethnic homogeneity for the ultimate goal of North-South reunification.
The ROK, having successfully in established diplomatic relations with East European countries, had the first summit meeting with the Soviet Union on June 4, The improvement of ROK-Soviet relations, symbolized by the summit meeting, indicates that the basic framework of East-West confrontation constituting the background of the division on the Korean Peninsula is changing dramatically, and it is considered to have an important implication on international politics in the area.
Encouraged by the achievement, the ROK is expected to make further efforts to improve relations with China on the occasion of the 11th Asian Games to be held in Beijing in September. Peace and stability on the Korean Peninsula has a great significance in relation with not only peace and stability in East Asia including Japan but also the entire world.
Japan takes a basic position that the problems on the Korean Peninsula should be settled in a peaceful manner primarily through talks between responsible persons of the North and South. Japan hopes that the tension on the peninsula will be relaxed through constructive dialogues and intends to make maximum contributions to the development of a necessary environment. In Cambodia, after Vietnam's military intervention in December , confrontation continues between three anti-Vietnamese factions on the one hand - the Sihanouk faction, Song Sunn faction, and Khmer Rouge KR faction - and the Vietnam-backed "Heng Samrin regime" on the other.
Following the interruption of Paris International Conference in August , the armed conflict in Cambodia has intensified and the situation is volatile to this date. As the peace-making process for a political solution, the five permanent members P-5 of the U. Security Council met unofficially almost every month to discuss mainly what actions could betaken by the United Nations. However, the countries concerned remained wide apart on key issues such as the relationship between the United Nations and the two "governments" and problems relating to a ceasefire.
Thus no decisive breakthrough has been made within the framework of the P In the meantime, the Cambodian factions and the countries in the region continued their efforts to find a solution. In February , a meeting between Prince Sihanouk and Prime Minister Hun Sen of the "Heng Samrin regime" was held in Bangkok, when they agreed on the establishment of the Supreme People's Council as an interim national organization symbolizing Cambodia's sovereignty until the establishment of a legitimate government, and the need of a United Nations role at an appropriate level during the transition period.
However, the subsequent unofficial meeting in Jakarta February , failed to produce an agreement due directly to confrontation between Vietnam and "Heng Samrin regime" and the KR faction. Under these circumstances, Prince Sihanouk, as the president of the Coalition Government of Democratic Kampuchea, made a nine-point peace proposal in April. Of the proposal, an offer to establish the Supreme People's Council with the same number of representatives from each of the two "regimes " drew much attention as the three anti-Vietnamese factions had previously demanded the establishment of an interim political system which would treat the four factions equally.
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China and Vietnam, which are seen as being able to exercise a direct influence on the future of the Cambodian problem, have been engaged in down-to-earth talks since resuming vice minister-level dialogue in January after 9 years of interruption. These talks have thus far reportedly confirmed that major differences still exist between them. Nevertheless, in light of a significant role the two countries could play in settling the Cambodian problem, the continuation of their talks, it is hoped, will develop a favorable environment toward a settlement. In July , the United States changed its previous policy and announced the start of talks with "Heng Samrin regime" and opposed the U.
Having been seriously concerned about the calamity in Cambodia from the outset, Japan has been making efforts to expedite a comprehensive settlement; of such efforts, Japan co-chaired the 3rd Special Committee on Cambodian Reconstruction and Refugees at the Paris International Conference in In , recoginizing that the correct understanding of the Cambodian domestic situation was essential for Japan to contribute to the settlement of the problem, Japan sent a government official, a director of the division responsible for the Cambodian Problem in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, to Phnom Penh for the first time after the establishment of the "Heng Samrin regime.
Among other efforts, Japan held political talks with China and Vietnam and informal consultation with the Western permanent member nations of the U. Security Council on the occasion of the P-5 meeting. Then, recognizing the fact that the development of dialogue between the Cambodian factions would be essential to achieve peace at an early date, Japan sponsored "The Tokyo Meeting on Cambodia" on June 4 and 5, in close coordination with Thailand, to provide a place of dialogue between Prince.
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Sihanouk and Mr. Hun Sen. The Tokyo Meeting marked an unprecedented undertaking in Japan's postwar diplomatic history in that Japan sponsored a peace meeting to settle a regional conflict involving a third country. The meeting had great significance in that major agreements were reached and a joint communique was signed between Prince Sihanouk and Mr. Hun Sen, concerning the ceasefire issue and the establishment of a Supreme National Council as a step leading to a comprehensive political solution.
However, Mr. Khieu Samphan of the KR faction, who participated as a member of the Sihanouk mission, persistently refused to sign the communique. Japan intends to persuade the KR faction to accept the communique of the Tokyo Meeting as early as possible ,with the cooperation of China and other countries involved in the Cambodian problem. When India and Pakistan became independent states in , questions over the status of the Kashmir region - to be part of India or Pakistan, or independent - were left undecided.
At that time, Kashmir was locked in a delicate situation where three-fourths of the population Moslems, while the feudal lord was the Hindu. Due to the situation, India and Pakistan fought three wars. In after the end of the First India-Pakistan War, a cease-fire line was drawn bringing about a de facto division of Kashmir.
Since then, neither of the two countries have made concessions in their respective positions. In the India-ruled part of Kashmir Jammu and Kashmir State ,an anti-India movement by Moslems developed since the summer of in the form of a general strike led by a radical faction.