Thilagamani S. Bhat S. Badran E. F, Esraa G. Mahmoud, and N. Wu Z,. Leahy R. Pawar, V. The described methods to analyze the influences of edge shape modifications will contribute to the optimization of drilling tools. Based on a specific cutting edge shape of a drill, systematic changes to the edge were made.
Forces and temperatures on the cutting edge were measured as well as the heat flow into the chips and the workpiece. Using a quick-stop device, length and type of chip for the different drills under various machining parameters were observed. It could be shown that the modification of the transition from the chisel to the cutting edge influences the stress developed, heat in chip and chip formation.
Machining with a rounded cutting edge shape compared to a sharp edge reduces the mechanical load but slightly increases thermal tool load. The presented experimental and FEA method show the possibility of determining influences of modified cutting edge shapes and to adapt the drill to the needs of the drilling process.
The cutting force and stress developed during drilling processes has direct influence on the generation of heat, tool wear, quality of machined surface and accuracy of workpiece. Due to complex tool geometry, cutting conditions and some unknown factors theoretical cutting force and stress calculation failed to produce accurate results. To see the behavior of drill either experimental or Finite Elemental Analysis can be used.
By using both the methods validation of results can be possible.
Ashkan Sahraie Jahromi, K. Habeeb Ur Rahman, R. Bassi, B. Grzesik, P. Athulan Vijayaraghavan, David A. Raviraj Shetty, Laxmikant K. Pai and S. Kadirgama, M. Noor, W. Harun and C. Namrata Rajendra Shah, Aishwarya Vishwakarma.
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Review on Text Document Watermarking. That digital signal is called watermark. Text document watermarking is the process of hiding digital data into text document such that it preserves ownership of document.
This paper focuses on watermarking process and various techniques including their benefits and limitations. Zunera Jalil and Anwar M. Robert and T. Huijuan Yang, Alex, and C. Almabrouk W. The nature of computer-supported cooperative work CSCW is to facilitate work using technology in such a way that supports human interaction in cooperative work situations. The proposed application system would be the tools that will facilitate and automate workflow in this organization.
This study was also proposed an outline policy for the organization based on the use of the automated system. For this study, the researcher designed a survey and distributed organization to 40 employees of this organization. Besides that, since the study is about current workflow, an observation was conducted to see how process is done.
Findings revealed that most of the participants replied positively that they are seriously in need to use up-to date automated technology to ease their interaction in that unit. Department of Information and Computer Science. University of California, Irvine. Aqeel-ur-Rehman, Zubair A. Shah Latif Town, Karachi, Pakistan, Page 4. Baecker, R. Page 6. Baker, S.. Getting the most from your intranet and extranet strategies.
Baker, S. Barber, P. Putting Your Organization on the Internet.
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THE Grantsmanship Center.. Horstmann, T. Berghel, H. Berners-Lee, T. Best, M. Bowers, J. Blackmore, P. Campbell, J. Castells, M.
Christensen, U. Curry, A. The intranet - an intrinsic component of strategic information management [Electronic version]. International Journal of Information Management, , 20 4 , Dix, A.
Human-Computer Interaction. New York: Prentice Hall. Ellis, C. Gibbs and G.
Local Structure from Diffraction
Fichter, D. Recipes for intranet standards [Electronic version]. Online Weston, Conn. Fisher, D. Terms of Service, Ethics and Bias.
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Great America Parkway. Fitzpatrick, G. Work, Locales and Distributed Social Worlds. Gerson, Elihu M. Greif, I. Olson, D.
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Galegher, R. Kraut, C. Egido Eds. Sustainable Public Transportation in Malaysia. Depending on the estimations conducted in for the number of automobile vehicles will increase to 15, million vehicles by Furthermore, it has been estimated that the motorcycles number is higher than the other types of the vehicles. The implications of the crucial increasing of street vehicles will disrupt widely the environment and human rather than the other types of the Malaysian infrastructure built. Therefore, the scientists suggest the Malaysian government to encourage the sustainable public transportation by reducing the costs and the ground fuel elimination.
Briceno-Garmendia, A. Estache, N. Gwilliam, "Urban transport in developing countries. Harrington, and V.