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Peshat and Derash, Plain and Applied Meaning in Rabbinic. Exegesis. primarily at redefining peshat and derash; their essential character is assumed

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It is not straightforward to test for significance in intact skeletal tissue in vitro or in animals in vivo , because, as is now known, both osteoblasts and osteoclasts extrude acid in response to PTH. Until more is understood about the mechanisms in each cell type, there is no known way of selectively inhibiting acid production in one of these cell types to determine the physiological consequence. Nevertheless, due to the temporal link of the two effects, it is conceivable that the acute ECAR response in osteoblasts is, in some unknown way, linked to the anabolic response of PTH in bone that occurs after transient, but not persistent, exposure of animals and humans to PTH 3.

The costs of publication of this article were defrayed in part by the payment of page charges. Section solely to indicate this fact. Barrett, G. Belinsky, and A.

Tashjian, Jr. You'll be in good company. Journal of Lipid Research. Barrett , Glenn S. Belinsky and Armen H. Tashjian Jr. Previous Section Next Section. Materials Culture media and sera were obtained from Life Technologies, Inc. Cell Culture Culture of the cells used in this study has been described previously. Microphysiometric Analysis Experiments were performed as detailed previously 17 , 18 , Previous Section.

II. Structure of PTH

Wilson J. Aurbach G. Saunders Co. Philadelphia , 7th Ed. Google Scholar.

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Whitfield J. CrossRef Medline Google Scholar. Bidwell J. Lee S. Bone Miner. Medline Google Scholar. Mitchell J. Bergwitz C. Acta : — Fukayama S. Abou-Samra A. Vignery A. Tissue Res. Haldimann B. Ivey J. Vaes G. Cell Biol. Dunlay R.

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Fogh J. Plenum Press , New York , pp — Hohmann E. Ponten J. Cancer 2 : — Sugimoto T. In the last three decades many compounds have been implicated as uremic toxins. However, a cause and effect relationship between these compounds and the manifestations of the uremic syndrome has not been established in most cases. Have doubts regarding this product?

Post your question. Safe and Secure Payments. Easy returns. You might be interested in. In particular, a short sequence comprising residues 29—32 of hPTH was shown to be both necessary and sufficient for activation of membrane-associated PKC s in osteoblastic cells, whereas the fragment hPTH 1—31 , lacking this domain, could not elicit this PKC response , Such observations are of interest in the context of the present review for at least two reasons. Thus, the in vitro mitogenic activity observed in response to this midregion fragment is not linked to stimulation of bone formation in vivo.

This concept was further supported by evidence that PTH action could be modulated by guanyl nucleotides activation of adenylyl cyclase or PLC or by pertussis toxin 99 , — Direct radioligand binding analysis of the interaction of PTH with membranes or intact cells of skeletal or renal origin demonstrated saturable binding with an affinity constant in the low nanomolar range 74 , 75 , , — , and chemical cross-linking studies indicated that the PTH receptor was likely to be a to kDa membrane glycoprotein — After the discovery of PTHrP as the cause of the humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy syndrome, the recognition of the high sequence homology of its N terminus with that of PTH, and the demonstration that the biological actions of N-terminal fragments of PTH and PTHrP were equivalent in many different bioassays , , it was shown that both PTH and PTHrP N-terminal fragments bind to the same receptor sites in kidney and bone cells — The N-terminal domain is glycosylated at four asparagine residues clustered near the junction with the first TMD , and includes three disulfide bonds involving six highly conserved cysteines The intracellular tail of the receptor seems also to be important for coupling to a pertussis toxin-sensitive Gi protein that inhibits adenylyl cyclase The PTH1R is highly expressed in bone and kidney, but is found also in a variety of tissues not regarded as classical PTH target tissues , This likely reflects the widespread local paracrine role of PTHrP postulated in tissues such as breast, skin, heart, blood vessels, pancreas, and others , Ablation of the PTH1R gene in mice [and inactivating mutations in humans ] results in neonatal lethality and a severe defect in endochondral bone formation characterized by impaired proliferation and accelerated chondrocyte maturation and mineralization Because a phenotype similar to that of the receptor-null animals results from PTHrP gene ablation , the predominant endochondral defect likely reflects interruption of the critical local paracrine role of PTHrP in the growth plate Ablation of the PTH gene , does lead to hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia, whereas activating mutations in the PTH1R cause hypercalcemia and hypophosphatemia , , confirming the primary role of PTH per se , and of the PTH1R, in maintaining normal mineral ion homeostasis.

Mice lacking the gene for PTH also exhibit abnormalities in mineralization and formation of primary spongiosa of long bones, which are not seen in PTHrP-null animals and are presumed to reflect loss of PTH-specific actions in bone, although the receptors involved have not been defined , The manner in which the PTH ligand interacts with the PTH1R has been deduced from an extensive series of studies by several groups involving mutagenesis of both the receptor and the ligand, use of hybrid receptors and ligands, and direct chemical cross-linking of ligands bearing photoreactive groups at specific locations within the peptide chain 84 , — The N terminus of the ligand then interacts with the TMD domains to catalyze the G protein activation s required for signal transduction , Thus, it is not necessary to invoke the existence of other types of PTH receptors to explain the diversity of signaling events that N-terminal fragments of PTH or PTHrP can elicit in various target cells, although this possibility has not been excluded completely.

Mutational analysis has indicated that different G proteins likely do not interact with the PTH1R identically. At the same time, studies of cells stably expressing the transfected PTH1R indicate that activation of PLC, which can lead to activation of PKC via generation of inositol trisphosphate and diacylglycerols, requires that the N terminus of the ligand be intact Although available data are not fully congruent, one interpretation is that PTH1Rs can activate PKC s via at least two different mechanisms, one of which involves PLC and requires that the ligand have an intact N terminus, whereas the other, a PLC-independent mechanism, is triggered by more carboxyl ligand determinants, such as the region PTH 29—32 [or PTHrP 25—34 ].

These mechanisms may not both be active in all target cells.

Parathyroid hormone

Although the role that this phenomenon plays in modulating PTH action in vivo remains to be determined, these observations suggest the possibility of a distinct cellular mechanism of action for at least some CPTH peptides, in addition to activation of CPTHRs.

In , Usdin et al. In rats, this receptor is expressed in discrete areas of the central nervous system, including hypothalamic, limbic, and sensory areas, especially in the spinal cord; parafollicular cells of the thyroid; peptide-secreting cells of the gastrointestinal tract; somatostatin-rich pancreatic islet cells; pancreatic exocrine cells; cardiac and vascular endothelium; vascular smooth muscle; lung; placenta; testis; and the vascular pole of the renal glomeruli but, unlike the PTH1R, not in renal tubules or bone , , Phe 23 in hPTHrP , which affected activation and binding, respectively , Photoaffinity cross-linking analyses suggest that the overall orientation of the ligand relative to the receptor protein is similar for PTH binding to PTH1Rs and PTH2Rs, although specific residues within the N terminus of the ligand may play different roles in activating one receptor vs.

Subsequent demonstration of a potent PTH2R-selective activating factor in bovine hypothalamic extracts was followed by the isolation and identification of a residue peptide termed tuberoinfundibular peptide of 39 residues, or TIP39, that shows limited amino acid sequence homology to bPTH and activates PTH2Rs but not PTH1Rs Later isolation of human and mouse TIP39 genomic DNA and tissue expression analysis in the mouse confirmed that this is a secreted peptide that is highly expressed in testis and, at lower levels, in various central nervous system nuclei, liver, and kidney On the basis of the localization of PTH2Rs and TIP39 in the central nervous system and recent neurobehavioral studies, it appears likely that one of the important actions of TIP39 is to facilitate the response to painful stimuli The selectivity of PTH2Rs vs.

These surprising results indicate that the C-terminal portion of TIP39 can bind well to the PTH1R, presumably via interaction with its extracellular domain , but that this affinity is overridden by a conformational incompatibility between the J domain of the PTH1R and the N-terminal six residues of TIP The importance of the PTH3R to human physiology is uncertain, however, because no evidence has been produced to date for the existence of a mammalian homolog of this receptor.

Thus, Orloff et al.