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Lee Krasner - Jackson Pollock. Helen Frankenthaler After Abstract Expressionism, Conversations about Sculpture. Gordon Matta-Clark: Anarchitect. James Turrell: Extraordinary Ideas—Realized. Hilma af Klint: Paintings for the Future. Yayoi Kusama: Festival of Life. Josef Mikl. Das satirische Werk. The Satirical Work. Piet Mondrian: Catalogue Raisonne.

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Filippo Brunelleschi Vol-2

Parallel Cities: The Multilevel Metropolis. In , during the papacy of Benedict XIV, the doors of the Pantheon were shut, and behind them dust rose as marble fragments from the attic were thrown down. What may have started as a maintenance project resulted in the elimination of the troublesome attic altogether. The work was carried out in secret; even the popes claim of authority over the Pantheon, traditionally the citys domain, was not made public until after completion.

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Francesco Algarotti, intellectual gadfly of the enlightened age, happened upon the work in progress and wrote with surprise and irony that they have dared to spoil that magnificent, august construction of the Pantheon. They have even destroyed the old attic from which the cupola springs and theyve put up in its place some modern gentilities. As with the twin bell towers erected on the temples exterior in the seventeenth century, Algarotti did not know who was behind the present work.

The new attic was complete by Plaster panels and pedimented windows replaced the old attic pilaster order, accentuating lines of horizontality. The new panels were made commensurate in measure to the domes coffers and the fourteen windows were reshaped as statue niches with cutout figures of statues set up to test the effect.

The architect responsible for the attics redesign, it was later revealed, was Paolo Posi who, as a functionary only recently hired to Benedict XIVs Vatican architectural team, was probably brought in after the ancient attic was dismantled. Posis training in the baroque heritage guaranteed a certain facility of formal invention. Francesco Milizia, the eighteenth centurys most widely respected architectural critic, described Posi as a decorative talent, not an architectural mind. Whatever one might think of the design, public rancor arose over the wholesale liquidation of the materials from the old attic.

Capitals, marble slabs, and ancient stamped bricks were dispersed on the international market for antiquities. Posis work at the Pantheon was sharply criticized, often with libelous aspersion that revealed a prevailing sour attitude toward contemporary architecture in Rome and obfuscated Posis memory. They found the new attic suddenly an affront to the venerated place.

Reconsidering Posis attic soon became an exercise in the development of eighteenth-century architects in Rome. Giovanni Battista Piranesi, the catalytic architectural mind who provided us with the evocative engraving of the Pantheons exterior, drew up alternative ideas of a rich, three-dimensional attic of clustered pilasters and a meandering frieze that knit the openings and elements together in a bold sculptural treatment.

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Piranesi, as we will see in a review of this architects work, reveled in liberties promised in the idiosyncrasies of the original attic and joyously contributed some of his own. Piranesi had access to Posis work site and had prepared engravings of the discovered brick stamps and the uncovered wall construction, but these were held from public release.

In his intuitive and profound understanding of the implications of the Pantheons supposed errors, Piranesi may have been the only one to approach without prejudice the Pantheon in all its complexity and contradiction. The polemical progress of contemporary architectural design in the context of the Pantheon exemplifies the growing difficulties at this moment of reconciling creativity and innovation with the past and tradition.


History takes on a weight and gains a life of its own. The polemic over adding to the Pantheon reveals a moment of transition from an earlier period of an innate, more fluid sense of continuity with the past to a period of shifting and uncertain relationship in the present.

The process of redefining the interaction of the present to the past, of contemporary creativity in an historical context, is the core of the problem of modern architecture in Italy and the guiding theme of this study. The celebrated cartographer Giovanni Battista Nolli and his team measured the entire city in eleven months using exact trigonometric methods.

At a scale of 1 to 2,, the two-squaremeter map sacrifices no accuracy: interior spaces of major public buildings, churches, and palazzi are shown in detail; piazza furnishings, garden parterre layouts, and scattered ruins outside the walls are described with fidelity. In the citys first perfectly ichnographic representation Nolli privileges no element over another in the urban fabric. All aspects are equally observed and equally important.

Vignettes in the lower corners of the map, however, present selected monuments of ancient and contemporary Rome: columns, arches, and temples opposite churches, domes, and new piazzas. Roma antica and Roma moderna face one another in a symbiotic union. The Nolli plan captures Rome in all its richness, fixing in many minds the date of its publication as the apex of the citys architectural splendor. It is an illusory vision, however, as Rome, like all healthy cities, has never been in stasis. Nollis inclusion of contemporary architecture emphasizes its constant evolution. His plan is neither a culmination nor a conclusion but the starting point for contemporary architecture.

The architecture of modern Italy is written upon this already dense palimpsest. The basilica, along with its baptistery, was erected by the Emperor Constantine in the year It was, and still is, the pre-eminent liturgical seat in the Christian capital, where the relics of Saints Peter and Paulspecifically, their headsare preserved. The popes resided at the Lateran through the Middle Ages and it remains today the cathedral of the city of Rome, though it does not enjoy a preeminent urban position or architectural stature; indeed its peripheral site along the citys western walls and eccentric orientation facing out across the open countryside make the maintenance of its rightful stature, let alone its aging physical structure, extremely difficult.

The Church of Saint Peters, on the other hand, also Constantinian in origin, had been entirely reconceived under Pope Julius II in the Renaissance and became the preferred papal seat.

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Meanwhile, the Lateran remained in constant need of repair, revision, and reform. Pope Sixtus V reconfigured the site by adding an obelisk, a new palace and benediction loggia on the side and later Pope Innocent X set Francesco Borromini to reintegrate the body of the church, its nave, and its double aisles, but his plans for the facade and eastern piazza were left unexecuted. Dozens of projects to complete the facade were proposed over the next seventy-five years until Pope Clement XII announced in an architectural competition for it. Clement XIIs idea of a competition was a novelty for Rome, with a published program and projects presented anonymously before an expert jury.

It would indeed provide an opportunity for exposure of new ideas and for stimulating discussion.

The architecture of modern Italy / Terry Kirk - Details - Trove

In , nearly two dozen proposals were put on display in a gallery of the papal summer palace on the Quirinal Hill. All the prominent architects of Rome participated, as well as architects from Florence, Bologna, and Venice. Participants drew up a variety of alternatives ranging, as tastes ran, between a stern classicism to fulsome baroque images after Borromini. Jury members from the Accademia di San Luca found the projects that followed Borrominian inspiration excessively exuberant and preferred the sobriety of the classical inheritance, and Alessandro.

Galilei emerged the winner.

The Architecture of Modern Italy

These expressed opinions delineated a polemical moment dividing the baroque from a new classicism. Galilei was a remote relation of the famous astronomer and followed the papal court from Florence to Rome. Galilei had been active in the rediscovery of classic achievements in the arts and letters in the eighteenth century re-examining Giotto, Dante, and Brunelleschi with renewed appreciation. For example, when asked in for his opinion on a new baroque-style altar for the Florentine baptistry, Galilei favored preserving the original Romanesque ambience of the interior despite the tastes of his day.

A renewed classical sense stigmatized the frivolities of the rococo as uncultivated, arbitrary, and irrational. Clement XIIs competition for San Giovanni may merely have been a means to secure the project less flagrantly for Galilei and to introduce a rigorous cultural policy to Rome.